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Pilgrimage to Castelforte, Anzio, Cassino, May 2024

Saturday 11 May 2024

2030-2300:  Local commemorative events in Castelforte to mark the start of the Final Battle of Cassino at 11pm on 11 May 1944.

Overnight – Castelforte.

Sunday 12 May 2024

0830-0930:  Remembrance Service at Minturno CWGC Cemetery.

1030-1200:  Monte Damiano Battlefield Reviews, organised by the Gustav Line Museum.

1230-1400: Parade from Castelforte to Suio Alto.

1700: Parade to War Memorial in Castelforte.  

1730-1900: Reception at Gustav Linea Association Museum in Castelforte.

Overnight – Castelforte.

Monday 13 May 2024

0900-1000: Amazon Bridge commemorations, along with the Royal Engineers/Monte Cassino Society.

1400-1700: Visit to the Abbey of Monte Cassino/Polish War Cemetery/Snakeshead Ridge.

Overnight – Cassino.

Tuesday 14 May 2024

1000-1100: Remembrance Service at Cassino CWGC Cemetery.

1400-1700:  Liri Valley Battlefield review.

  1. Congo Bridge crossings on 14 May 1944.
  2. Piopetto crossing – 6 Innisks advance on 15 May 1944.
  3. ‘O’ Group for 2 LIR on 15 May 1944.
  4. Start Line for 2 LIR advance on 16 May 1944.
  5. Casa Sinagoga – Objective of 2 LIR attack on 16 May 1944.
  6. Colle Monache – Start of advance of 1 RIrF on morning of 17 May 1944.
  7. Piumarola – Fighting for 6 Innisks/2 LIR on 17 May 1944.
  8. Route 6 – Cutting of Via Casalina on 17 May 1944.

Overnight – Cassino.

Wednesday 15 May 2024

1000-1100: Commemorative Service at the German War Cemetery at Caira.

1200: Travel to Anzio.

1400-1500: CWGC at Anzio, Beachhead Cemeteries.

1600: “The Wadis”/Flyover/”The Factory”/E.F. Waters Memorial.

Overnight – Cassino.

Thursday 16 May 2024

0900-1100: Commemoration of the precise timing of 2 LIR’s attack on the Gustav Line at Casa Sinagoga south of Cassino.

Rifleman Norman Patrick Gould

Not all of the 1700 London Irish Riflemen who are named on the Regiment’s War Memorial at Connaught House were serving with one of its battalions when they were killed. For example, during the First World War, a number of men were attached to the Royal Irish Rifles during the final months of the war and in turn some men were attached to the LIR from other battalions. This trend continued in the Second World War with attachments of several officers, including Colonel Ion Goff and Major Kevin O’Connor who were both killed in Italy.

One other such case is Rifleman Norman Patrick Gould, known as Patrick to his comrades, who transferred from the 2nd Battalion London Irish Rifles (2 LIR) to No 2. Commando who would take a lead role in Operation Avalanche, the 5th Army’s landings near Salerno in mid September 1943. Rifleman Gould was one of a number of Commandos who were killed on 12th/13th September 1943 and all these men are buried at the Salerno War Cemetery. In reviewing the CWGC records, it is also noted that Patrick Gould is the only one with a clear London Irish Rifles connection who is buried at Salerno.

We do not have access to Rifleman Gould’s service records but it is possible that he was called up in the early months of the war and served with 2 LIR during their period of training and home front defence in the UK. It is highly likely that he was transferred to the Commandos during this time.

Although clearly designated as a Commando at the time of his death, Patrick is rightly included on the LIR’s War Memorial and, as we mark the 80th anniversary of the Salerno landings, we shall certainly pause to remember the valour shown by Rifleman Gould and all his friends and comrades in their fight to liberate Italy.

Quis Separabit

The Battle of Bou Arada – Hills 279/286

The Battle of Bou Arada was a bloody affair in which the 2nd Battalion, London Irish distinguished themselves, but with grievous losses. The night of 19 January 1943 had been spent just outside El Aroussa, and the next night the battalion moved into the plains to the west of Bou Arada. Another move was ordered, but no sooner had the battalion finished digging that they had to move once more. In fact the London Irish moved four times in four nights, and everyone became tired. On the morning of the 19th, they marched in extended line across the open plain via Bou Arada. Their job was to guard the brigade’s one line of communication, the lateral road from Bou Arada to Grandstand Ridge.

(NA 3129) Original wartime caption: Grandstand Hill Copyright: © IWM. 

The enemy had been quick to see this weakness in the brigade’s disposition, and they occupied a hill, Point 286, only one thousand yards from the road. From there, they could observe, mortar and machine gun the brigade’s life line. It was an unpleasant situation and the London Irish were ordered to remedy it by driving the Germans off the hill and prevent its reoccupation. Instructions came at midnight and there was no time for a reconnaissance beforehand. The plan was for the battalion to form up on the lateral road at about 0330 hours on the 20th.  ‘G’ Company were to lead and occupy Point 279, a lesser hill adjacent to Point 286, and ‘F’ Company were to follow and establish themselves on the reverse slopes of Point 279, while ‘H’ Company were to make a detour on the left and attack Point 286 from that flank. Support from the gunners, mortars, machine guns, and anti-tank guns was arranged, though the attack was to be made without any preliminary bombardment as it was though that the hill was not held in strength by the enemy, who would thus not be warned of the impending attack and send up reinforcements.


At 0440 hours, ‘G’ Company advanced on to Point 279 and, meeting no opposition, continued towards Point 286. ‘F’ Company moved on as well, but started to attack Point 351 to the left instead of Point 286. Here the Germans were strongly entrenched, and 10 and 12 Platoons were held up, while 9 Platoon managed to get forward and took six prisoners, although they themselves were forced later to withdraw.

As he led his men up the slopes of Point 286, Major BA Tebbitt, commanding ‘G’ Company, realised that he had over-shot his objective, and he returned to Point 279. It was now 0730 hours, and daylight. ‘F’ Company also returned to Point 279, where they re-formed to attack their proper target. They moved towards Point 286 round the back of Point 279, with the object this time of attacking the hill from the right. There was a hail of machine-gun and rifle fire as the company approached Point 286. The two leading platoons went forward, covered by ‘G’ Company firing from the forward slopes of Point 279. The enemy were seen running from Point 286, and F Company went in at the point of the bayonet.

No sooner had they reached the summit of the hill and found that the enemy infantry had abandoned it, than German tanks and armoured cars were seen ascending the eastern slopes in a counter-attack. German mortars bombarded the hill, but the men of ‘F’ Company stood firm and the enemy cars and tanks were held off. Continued enemy fire took its toll and the gallant company suffered heavy losses, including Captain Ekin, their commander, and Lieutenant Vic Pottinger, both of whom were killed. Lieutenant A Cowdy was left in charge of the company, which was so reduced in strength that they were withdrawn. ‘E’ Company were warned to take over the positions on Point 286, and while the company “O” group were receiving orders, a mortar bomb dropped in one of the trenches, fatally wounding Captain JP Carrigan and two signallers.

The enemy by this time had occupied Point 286, and a further effort to drive them off had to be made. Led by Captain JV Lillie-Costello, ‘E’ Company bravely stormed the slopes. Some managed to reach the crest, but others were forced down to folds in the ground to gain cover from cunningly laid automatic and mortar fire.  Lieutenant Josephs and his platoon held on, but the officer and most of his men were wounded. Several were killed. The Germans had given up some ground but they had not been driven off the hill. They bombarded the forward slopes of Point 279 where ‘G’ Company were in the open, valiantly trying to help their comrades with supporting fire.  Their losses impelled ‘G’ Company back to cover in a wadi behind the hill, where they were joined by the staff of battalion headquarters, and the men of E Company who had survived the attack.


The Commanding Officer reported the situation to brigade, but the Brigadier emphasised the importance of securing Point 286, and a further attack by the London Irish was decided upon. The attack was made by ‘H’ Company, and no sooner had it got into its stride than the battalion area was dive-bombed by Stukas, and simultaneously ‘H’ Company were heavily mortared. Their Commander, Major JD Lofting, was wounded, and their Second-in-Command, Captain H Henderson, was killed. Men were falling fast, and the Commanding Officer ordered the company back. Some had managed once more to gain the summit, but it was impossible to hold it in the intense enemy fire.

Then word came that the Germans had been seen withdrawing yet again from Point 286.  Major WD Swiney, Second-in-Command of the battalion, went forward with all that remained of ‘H’ Company.  They went up as unobtrusively as possible, a section at a time, and despite continuous mortaring, they occupied the hill-top. They remained there for the rest of the day, gaining such cover as they could on the bald, rocky hill, where the ground was so hard that they could not dig in. Firing died down in the afternoon and desultory shelling and mortar fire was the only sign of enemy activity to break the uneasy silence of the battle-field.

The London Irish had gained their objective, but at a crippling cost. Nearly all the officers had been killed or wounded. ’F’ Company had no officers left, and losses in non-commissioned officers and men had been extremely high. That night the battalion medical officer, Captain LJ Samuels, who had done great work during the day, organised the cooking for the men. Food was prepared in a small culvert under the Goubellat-Bou Arada road, and sent up to the companies. Men of ‘E’ and ‘F’ Companies were on Point 279, ‘H’ were on Point 286, and the rest in the wadi below Point 279.


Shortly after midnight, a runner came in from ‘E’ Company and reported that German tanks were climbing the slopes of Point 279, with infantry in the rear. The Germans overran the posts on Point 279 and fired for all they were worth into the wadi where battalion headquarters were quartered.  In the darkness all communications within the battalion were disrupted. The companies were scattered and the fighting became very confused – the Germans seemed to fire wildly in all directions, and kept up a demonic yelling as if to bolster up their own courage. They withdrew as suddenly as they appeared, and the tanks moved smartly after them. At daylight the position was once more normal. The London Irish were on Point 286, and the enemy had gone.

Final casualties in the Battle of Hill 286 were: 6 officers and 20 other ranks killed; 8 officers and 78 other ranks wounded; 6 officers and 130 other ranks missing. Many of the latter were confirmed later as having been wounded and taken prisoner. The Divisional Commander and Brigadier Nelson Russell visited the battalion after the battle and thanked them for the part they had played in a vital operation.


Later the Brigadier (Russell) recorded officially as follows:

“The London Irish Rifles were a fine battalion, first-class officers and non-commissioned officers and good men all keen as mustard. They had been working together for three years. They possessed a good ‘feel’ and were proud of their battalion, as they had every right to be. They attacked with great spirit and after hard fighting drove the enemy off Point 286. But then came the trying time.  It was practically impossible to dig in on the hard rocky slopes, and all through the day they were subjected to heavy artillery and extremely accurate mortar fire. This fine battalion refused to be shelled off the position. What they had, they held. But at heavy cost. I never hope to see a battalion fighting and enduring more gallantly.  Nor do I want to witness again such cruel casualties.”


In 2011, Sgt Charles Ward, who was serving with ‘’G’ Company at Bou Arada at the time, recalled what had happened :

“We had to move over from one side of the road to the other side. As we moved across the road, we got shelled and we dropped into a wadi. I was leading my section along the wadi when suddenly a voice said ‘run’. I just said to the men ‘come on’. We ran down the wadi, got round a corner and I heard a shell explode behind. Going back, I found three men wounded, lying in the wadi, and I patched them up the best I could and waited until the stretchers came. Our platoon commander (2nd Lieutenant) Hardwick was one of the wounded. Then I continued to the forming up point ready for the attack.

This was all in broad daylight – it was crazy really. You knew you would be half way across and the enemy would throw everything at you. During that night, everyone assembled including our bren carriers, You could hear them forming up. The attack went in very early the next morning and we went to the first hill. And then to the second hill and nothing happened. It was then on the third hill (286) that all hell broke loose.

We holed up in a large depression in the ground, being shelled constantly. The Royal Artillery Forward Observation Officer ordered me to go up to the top of the hill to identify from where the shells were coming. I could see they were coming from a farmhouse about half way down on the plain behind the hill.

So I got back and discovered that a shell had fallen where I had been lying and left one or two injured. The artillery officer got the medical people to pick up the wounded and we then decided that there was no future in staying there and ordered a smoke screen. So we all withdrew and dropped into another wadi.”

Read more about Hill 286 here.

Sergeant Charles Ward’s 103rd Birthday.

You can view an interview with Charles Ward here:

Monty inspects the 1st Battalion at Ashford, June 1941

Training in London in 1939

Some interesting photos of the London Irish Rifles, probably members the 1st Battalion, training in London during November 1939.

The London Irish Rifles training in Wales in 1940

Some excellent photographs have been discovered at the Imperial War Museum (IWM) showing the intensive training manoeuvres undertaken by the 2nd Battalion London Irish Rifles on the cliffs near Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire during October 1940.

(H 5139) Men of the 2nd London Irish Rifles advancing with fixed bayonets after climbing up the cliffs during training at Little Haven near Haverfordwest. Copyright: © IWM.

As the ‘London Irish at War’ noted:

“Following Dunkirk, invasion became even more likely and work on the defences of Britain was intensified. The 2nd Battalion spent several weeks on local-defence duties in Knutsford, Cheshire, and subsequently underwent hard training at Haverfordwest. At the same time they had to be prepared to join in coast defence.

CQMS Edmund O’Sullivan recalled that period in Wales:

“Company training followed. We were bussed to Newgale Sands for a fortnight’s intensive battle preparation. This involved forced marches and long runs that culminated in nude bathing in the cold sea, watched appreciatively from a distance by local ladies. Route marches with full packs, stalking and crawling and field-firing using live ammunition were among the pleasures we endured under Captain Geoffrey Phillips, our temporary Company Commander. On the final Friday evening, he treated the whole company in the local hostelry as a mark of his appreciation for our efforts.”

There were occasional moments of ill-discipline. Rifleman Waddy Weir, worse for drink, attempted on three occasions to swim home to his wife in Ireland. After pulling him out of the shallow sea twice, I said on his third attempt: ‘Drown then.’ He did not, as the next day he was once more asking to borrow ‘fippence’ for a drink. We returned to Haverfordwest feeling more like soldiers, tough and prepared for anything.”

Rifleman Donald Zec, 2 LIR

We have learnt of the recent death of former Rifleman Donald Zec, who served alongside his brother Philip with the 2nd Battalion, London Irish Rifles. Although we do not have full details (nor any pictures) of Rifleman Zec’s service period with the LIR, we do know that he created an illustrious post-war career with the Daily Mirror.

You can read an obituary from the Guardian here:

Donald David Zec, journalist, born 12 March 1919; died 6 September 2021

Quis Separabit

Lt Terry Flynn, 2 LIR in Italy

On Loos Sunday, we were delighted to meet with Sean Flynn, the son of Lieutenant Terry Flynn, who served with the 2nd Battalion London Irish Rifles during the Second World War. Although the details of Lt Flynn’s service period is not exactly clear, it is certain that he was serving with 2 LIR during its final advance through the Argenta Gap to the Po river in April 1945. He then went onto undertake peacekeeping duties with the battalion in Austria for the rest of 1945 and it seems that he may then have transferred to the 1st Battalion in 1946 when they were based in the Trieste area and completed his war time service with them in Italy.

During his visit to Connaught House, Sean Flynn shared some photos of his father as well as providing additional details about his background with previous strong family connections with the armed forces. We were also delighted that the Flynn family wishes to donate a number of interesting artefacts and some boxing trophies that Terry had won during the period of military training in the UK.

Sean went onto tell us that his father was born in 1923 and, after the outbreak of war, initially served with the Royal Armoured Corps as a “tankie” in North Africa and Italy before transferring to the LIR. It is probable that he was commissioned into the Royal Ulster Rifles after serving with distinction with a tank regiment.

As often was the case, Terry Flynn didn’t share too much detail with his family after the war but he certainly was deeply affected by some of the events that he witnessed during the final advances in Italy. He died on 17th March 2002 – perhaps fittingly for an Irish soldier – and left a legacy of heroic memory. We hope to perhaps learn more about his army career over the coming months.

Many thanks to Sean Flynn for visiting us and sharing his father’s story.

Quis Separabit

CSM Patrick Keenan

We recently received a note from Gerard Bryson, the nephew of CSM Patrick Keenan, who was killed on 9th September 1944 while serving with 1 LIR during the Gothic Line battles.

Patrick Keenan’s service record is not entirely clear but it seems that he started his army career with the Skins/Faughs during the early 1920s and served for 15 years before the war. He joined up with 1 LIR in Egypt or Italy in 1944 – perhaps he was shipped out from the UK during the year, the battalion needing reinforcements after Anzio etc.

This clip from ‘The London Irish at War’ confirms the circumstances of CSM Keenan’s death:

It was realised that the San Sevino Ridge was the key to Croce, and that Croce was the key to the whole Corps line….

The battalion stayed on for three days, enduring heavy bombardments and throwing back strong German patrols probing at danger-spots. Casualties were heavy. Lieutenant Johns in the Support Company was wounded by our own twenty-five pounders; D Company lost several killed and Lieutenant Michael Spiller and others wounded in a direct hit on a house.

B Company suffered the battalion’s greatest loss during that period, when CSM Keenan, a magnificent soldier and man, was killed in his slit trench by a mortar bomb bursting in the trees above.

In his note, Gerard went onto tell us more about the Keenan family:

“My uncle was the second born of a family of eight and his father James was in an artillery unit in the Boer war. His two brothers, James (who died before the war) and William (Skipper), were merchant seamen. His uncle William, also a seaman, appears on the Tower Hill memorial having died from exposure in a lifeboat after his ship the SS Brayhead was torpedoed  in 1917. Clearly, our family has a long association with the military.

Patrick is survived today by his 83 year old daughter.”

Quis Separabit.